|Type of Publication:||Article||Keywords:||Instants of significant excitation; Group delay function; Hilbert envelope; Linear prediction residual; Vowel onset point; Time scale modification; Duration modification|
|Authors:||K. Sreenivasa Rao, B. Yegnanarayana|
This paper proposes a method for duration (time scale) modification using glottal closure instants (GCI, also known as instants of significant excitation) and vowel onset points (VOP). In general, most of the time scale modification methods attempt to vary the duration of speech segments uniformly over all regions. But it is observed that consonant regions and transition regions between a consonant and the following vowel, and between two consonant regions do not vary appreciably with speaking rate. The proposed method implements the duration modification without changing the durations of the transition and consonant regions. Vowel onset points are used to identify the transition and consonant regions. A VOP is the instant at which the onset of the vowel takes place, which corresponds to the transition from a consonant to the following vowel in most cases. The VOPs are computed using the Hilbert envelope of linear prediction (LP) residual. The instants of significant excitation correspond to the instants of glottal closure (epochs) in the case of voiced speech, and to some random excitations, like the onset of burst, in the case of nonvoiced speech. Manipulation of duration is achieved by modifying the duration of the LP residual with the help of instants of significant excitation as pitch markers. The modified residual is used to excite the time-varying filter whose parameters are derived from the original speech signal. Perceptual quality of the synthesized speech is found to be natural. Performance of the proposed method is compared with the method, where the duration of speech is modified uniformly over all regions. Samples of speech signals for different modification factors is available for listening at http://sit.iitkgp.ernet.in/~ksrao/result.html.